E – Emotional Intelligence Glossary

EI (emotional intelligence): This is that aspect of human intelligence that governs our ability to recognize, understand, control and use emotions in solving problems of a personal and interpersonal nature.

Emotional: This relates to the emotional aspect of emotional-social intelligence, and to the intrapersonal component of personal intelligences within the framework of multiple intelligences as conceptualized by Howard Gardner in 1983.

Emotional and social competence: This term is nearly synonymous with emotional intelligence (EI) and, more accurately, with emotional-social intelligence. More succinctly, it refers to one’s ability or capability to act in an emotionally and socially intelligent way. At times, the term “emotional-social intelligence” is used as an abbreviated description of emotional and social intelligence.

Emotional and social competencies: This relates to an array of emotional and social competencies and skills associated with emotional and social intelligence.

Emotional and social competency: This term is nearly synonymous with emotional and social intelligence. More precisely, it refers to one’s ability or capability to act in an emotionally and socially intelligent way.

Emotional and social functioning: This relates to functioning and performance which is emotional and social in nature, or more specifically to those overt acts driven by emotional and social intelligence.

Emotional and social intelligence: This term is synonymous with emotional intelligence (EI). It is often abbreviated as “emotional-social intelligence” by Reuven Bar-On and others.

Emotional and social IQ: This term denotes emotional and social intelligence in general, but more specifically a score that is rendered by an EI measure that describes one’s level of emotional and social intelligence. It is often referred to as EQ.

Emotional awareness: This term relates to being aware of one’s emotions and constitutes, in and of itself, a very fundamental component of emotional-social intelligence. The area has been extensively studied by researchers such as Lane, Schwartz, Damasio, Tranel and Bechara to mention a few the leading scholars in this area. Methods used to study this component of EI have included the Emotional Stroop Task, self-report measures such as the LEAS(Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale), neural imaging, and lesions studies.

Emotional competence: This term is nearly synonymous with emotional intelligence (EI). It was popularized by Carolyn Saarni, who has described eight specific emotional and social skills that develop from early childhood.

Emotional competencies: These are the emotional competencies and skills associated with emotional intelligence (EI).

Emotional competency: This term is nearly synonymous with emotional competence as well as emotional intelligence (EI). It is also similar to the concept of emotional maturity and reminiscent of the term “social maturity” which was operationalized by Edgar Doll in the 1930s.

Emotional expression: This relates to the outward expression of emotions and feelings, first studied by Charles Darwin [1837-1872].

Emotional intelligence (EI): This is the emotional or EI component of human intelligence. The construct has been scientifically studied as early as 1837 in the nineteenth century and during much of the twentieth century. However, the conceptualization probably began in the early part of the twentieth century with psychologists such as Thorndike [1920]. The term itself, was most likely coined by Leuner in 1966, and some think that Piaget used a similar term many years before. The common components of EI that have appeared in various conceptualizations and definitions of this construct have included the following: (i) recognizing and understanding emotions and expression feelings, (ii) recognizing and understanding the feelings of others, (iii) managing and controlling emotions, (iv) using emotions and feelings in personal and interpersonal problem solving, and (v) generating emotions to motivate oneself. According to the Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology (2004), there are three main conceptual and psychometric models of emotional intelligence: (a) the Salovey-Mayer model; (b) the Bar-On model; and (c) the Goleman model. And there are three main EI assessment modalities that are popularly used: 1) ability-testing measures (such as MSCEIT based on the Salovey-Mayer model); 2) self-reports (such as the EQ-i based on the Bar-On model); and 3) multi-rater evaluations (such as the ECI based on the Goleman model).

Emotional intelligence tests: These are tests or measures of EI. There are three basic assessment modalities that are used: (i) ability-testing, (ii) self-report, and (iii) multi-rater or 360 degree evaluation. According to the Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology (2004), the three most popular EI measures are: (a) the Salovey-Mayer-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test or MSCEIT based on the Mayer-Salovey model of EI; (b) the Bar On Emotional Quotient Inventory or EQ-i based on the Bar-On model of EI; and (c) the Emotional Competence Inventory or ECI based on the Goleman-Boyatzis model of EI.

Emotional IQ: This term denotes emotional-social intelligence in general, but more specifically the result of an EI measure that describes one’s overall level of emotional intelligence.

Emotional literacy: This term is used to denote the emotional-social intelligence construct that has been used primarily by those who have been applying EI in education, such as practitioners associated with CASEL (Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning). It has been replaced primarily by the term “SEL” (“Social Emotional Learning”) and more recently by “emotional intelligence” (“EI”). More narrowly, this term refers to the ability to understand others’ emotions or the way others feel (i.e., empathy) referring to only one fundamental and very important aspect of EI.

Emotional skills: This term is loosely used to refer to skills associated with EI. It also suggests that the key factorial components of emotional intelligence (EI) are learned skills rather than abilities, competencies or traits.

Emotional-social competencies: This term is loosely used to refer to emotional-social competencies associated with EI; and it suggests that the factorial components of emotional intelligence are competencies, which are more closely associated with abilities than skills but used vaguely in order to describe EI factors that might be somewhere between abilities and skills.

Emotional-social competency: This refers to the overall capability or capacity for emotional-social behavior.

Emotional-social intelligence (ESI): This term was coined by Reuven Bar-On to describe the overall or wider construct of what is currently and popularly referred to as “emotional intelligence” (“EI”). It was created to suggest that this construct is comprised of both emotional and social aspects and that are difficult if not impossible to separate.

Emotional-social IQ: This term denotes emotional-social intelligence in general, but more specifically the result score of a measure of emotional-social intelligence that describes one’s overall level of EI.

E.Q. (Emotional Quotient): This term was coined by Reuven Bar-On in 1985. It first appeared in a copy of his doctoral dissertation (p. 419), which was sent to the library as well as to two internal readers at Rhodes University and one external reader at the University of Witwatersrand in South Africa. His idea of an EQ was more formally developed in a presentation (“The Era of the EQ: Defining and Assessing Emotional Intelligence”) delivered at the 104th Annual Conference of the American Psychological Association in 1996.

EQ-i: This is a self-report measure of emotionally and socially intelligent behavior that provides an estimate of emotional-social intelligence. The Bar On EQ-i comprises 133 items in the form of short sentences and employs a 5-point response scale with a textual response format. It is suitable for individuals 17 years of age and older. It takes approximately 40 minutes to complete. The individual’s responses render a total EQ score as well as scores on 5 composite scales and 15 subscales that are the factorial components of the Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence.

EQ-i:YV: This is a self-report psychometric instrument designed to measure emotionally and socially intelligent behavior in children and adolescents 7 to 18 years of age. The Bar On EQ-i:YV is based on the Bar-On conceptual model of emotional-social intelligence. This measure consists of 60 items that are distributed across the following scales: Total EQ, Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, Stress Management, Adaptability, General Mood, Positive Impression, and Inconsistency Index. Based on the large normative sample (N=9,172), 4 separate age groupings were created for males and 4 for females; these 8 different age/gender groupings are used to convert raw scores into standard scores according to the gender and age of the respondent.

ESI (Emotional-Social Intelligence): This acronym was coined by Reuven Bar-On to describe the overall or wider construct of what is currently and popularly referred to as “emotional intelligence” (“EI”). It was created to emphasize that this construct is comprised of both emotional and social aspects and that it is difficult if not impossible to separate these major conceptual components of this wider construct.

 

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